Both the excimer laser and Er : YAG lasers are able to create divergent cut angles that produce conical incisions with wider endothelium diameter than epithelial diameter.35,36 The advantages of this configuration include use of intraocular pressure to push the corneal graft into the recipient bed, increase in wound surface, and increase in number of endothelial cells transplanted, especially important in disorders with endothelial cell dysfunction (e.g. Would you like email updates of new search results? We report two cases of EB in which an Er:YAG laser was used for conservative treatments. This should be screened for, and discussed, preoperatively; most patients are aware of their propensity for postinflammatory pigment changes once it is brought to their attention. Twenty-four veneers were bonded to freshly extracted and prepared incisors. There is at least one Er:YAG dental laser, however, (see that utilizes VSP technology. The great advance for dental lasers came in the mid 1990s, with various laser types (Diode laser, Nd: YAG, Er, Cr: YSGG, Er: … Er:YAG laser; Carbon dioxide laser; Er,Cr:YSGG laser; Erbium lasers are both hard and soft tissue capable. Epub 2014 Oct 26. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Jon Julian DDS, in Principles and Practice of Laser Dentistry, 2011. One example of a rare laser scleral refractive procedure is laser assisted presbyopia reversal (LAP) or laser assisted presbyopic sclerectomy (LAPS). Schwarz et al.61 used an Er:YAG laser to treat lesions in 20 patients who had at least one implant with moderate to advanced periimplantitis, for a total of 40 implants. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Principles and Practice of Laser Dentistry, Scleral laser surgery is rare. Ghazanfari R, Azimi N, Nokhbatolfoghahaei H, Alikhasi M. J Lasers Med Sci. Search for more papers by this author. Erbium lasers are systems in which the rare earth element Er3 + constitutes the active ion in a matrix such as YAG, YAP (yttrium aluminum perovskite), YLF (LiYF4), YSGG, and glass (Zharikov et al., 1975; Barnes et al., 1986; Dinerman and Moulton, 1994; Tikerpae et al., 1999; Young et al., 2004). Attempts have been made to use, Woraphong Manuskiatti, Mitchel P. Goldman, in, Nearly all patients with darker skin types will develop post-treatment hyperpigmentation. Though similar, there is a significant water absorption difference between these two wavelengths. The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. LiteTouch™ is an Er:YAG Dental Laser for treating both hard and soft tissues is the ideal tool for performing Minimal Invasive Dentistry (MID), preserving the oral healthy tissue. Er:YAG can also lase at the second wavelength (1645 nm) but, instead of flashlamp or diode laser pumping, resonant pumping with the wavelength 1535 nm must be used for obtaining the population inversion. Epub 2014 Aug 13. An overview of important Er-doped materials is presented in Table 5.11. Careful preoperative screening is necessary to determine which patients are at greatest risk of developing hyperpigmentation after resurfacing. Sanghera J, Kim W, Villalobos G, Shaw B, Baker C, Frantz J, Sadowski B, Aggarwal I. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation following Er:YAG laser is not as persistent as that observed after multiple-pass CO2 laser skin resurfacing. HHS Pretreatment with topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone and retinoic or glycolic acid has been recommended one month prior to laser resurfacing, but its clinical efficacy is yet to be proven. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Fotona's Nd:YAG laser light penetrates deeper into the skin to selectively target even the deepest skin structures such as deep-lying veins and hair follicles. If the wavelength of the Er:YAG (2.94 µm) is compared to conventional dental diode soft-tissue lasers (810 nm to 980 nm), the depth of penetration per pulse with diodes is estimated to be greater by a factor of 104 (10,000x), or 4 cm. Ceramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations. Materials (Basel). Their attractiveness resides in the wavelengths generated. Deeb JG, McCall C, Carrico CK, Dahlke WO, Grzech-Leśniak K. Materials (Basel). When beginning to analyze changes of tissue components on heating from water, it is important to note that for some IR wavelengths the absorption peak of water, for instance at λ = 2.94 μm (Er:YAG laser), drops and shifts towards shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature.73 Based on this, and also on data for water absorption at 2.74 μm, Vogel and Venugopalan32 computed the penetration depth increase during laser irradiation (Fig. This laser has the power to destroy bacteria located in the pits and fissures and leave a clean field. Bone surgery applications have been found in oral surgery, dentistry, implant dentistry, and otolaryngology. J. Pašta, in Lasers for Medical Applications, 2013. Radiations with wavelengths in the first group are strongly absorbed by water because of atomic resonances; the active materials from the second group generate wavelengths which belong to (1.5 μm) or are very near (1.66 μm, 1.7 μm) a very useful part of the spectrum called the ‘eye safe’ region, which poses very little hazard to the human eye. The Er:YAG Laser was not included among the sources of aerosol in a dental clinic. 5.13. Control specimens showed debris and heavy smear layer obscuring the dentinal tubules at all levels in the canals. Nd:YAG lasers are contraindicated around implants because they can heat the implant surface and cause sloughing of titanium from the surface.201. SkyPulse is able to produce exceptionally low-energy and short duration laser pulses optimized to generate a clinically effective photoacoustic effect for endodontic treatments using Fotona’s SSP and SWEEPS treatment protocols, according to the company. The cells proliferated actively on all substrates; greatest cellular proliferation was observed in the group treated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 300 J/cm. Tuchin, in Lasers for Medical Applications, 2013. If an Er:YAG laser is not available only single pass treatment using the CO2 laser is advised. One of the more interesting active materials from the first group is Er:YAG, due to the coincidence of its generated wavelength with the absorption peak of water (optical absorption > 3000 cm− 1 – see Fig. Er:YAG laser reacts on dental hard struc- tures without leading to more severe thermal side effects or injury to the pulp (such as melting or cracking) when it is continuously used with proper amount of water cooling and correct treatment parameters. Chapter 7 further describes treatment of periimplant mucositis and periimplantitis208 with lasers. LiteTouch Er:YAG Dental Laser is suitable for hard tissue and soft tissue, with features of fast cutting, high-efficiency. Department of Clinical Dentistry – Periodontotics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Epub 2018 Jun 15. After 3 and 6 months the sites decontaminated with the laser showed more improvement than conventionally treated sites. The laser emission occurs at 2940 nm. An Er:YAG laser was used on half the implants and mechanical debridement with plastic curettes and antiseptic therapy with chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%) on the other half. Er:YAG laser emission on the basis of the absorption of radiation in water. Objective: Histologically, a favorable formation of new bone was observed on the laser-treated implant surface, and the laser group showed a tendency to produce greater bone-to-implant contact than the curette group.206, Also, multiple studies using CO2 lasers for healing of periimplant defects, without or with bone-grafting material and collagen membrane, show excellent results in vivo.207 The effect of diode laser use in periimplantitis is difficult to elucidate because of the three different diode wavelengths available, different experimental protocols, and different fluences used. Methods . carbonizing of the nail plate in pursuit of the subungual or periungual wart. Olav E. Bøe. Changes of water absorption when using a laser of wavelength selected according to a certain wavelength with such an absorption maximum, for instance 2.94 μm, may lead to the cut depth becoming unexpectedly deeper. Patients with a suntan should not be treated. Severe thermal injury may promote the arising of pterygium and nail plate deformity (Fig. The prevalence of peri-implantitis is of concern to all clinicians participating Key words: Er:YAG laser, dental caries treatment, children, permanent teeth INTRODUCTION: Er:YAG laser is one of the most suitable laser sys-tems that could be used in dental caries treatment in child-hood. Epub 2019 Feb 25. Nearly all patients with darker skin types will develop post-treatment hyperpigmentation. Dental Montreal Team is privileged to be in concurrence with the latest in Diode Laser technology it is never been easier to do frenectomy, tooth lengthening, gum overgrowth surgeries. Y. Matsuura, in Lasers for Medical Applications, 2013. Results: 2012 Feb 9;5(2):258-277. doi: 10.3390/ma5020258. 8.23). 3.27). Many clinicians favor using lightening agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, retinoic acid or azelaic acid postoperatively. The possibilities for laser use in dentistry did not occur until 1989, with the production of the American Dental Laser for commercial use. Germanium oxide (GeO2) glass fibers show high transmission for infrared light with wavelengths shorter than 2.9 μm. Erica Krohn Jany Migliorati DDS, Daniel Simões de Almeida Rosa DDS, in Principles and Practice of Laser Dentistry, 2011, Studies on the biological effects of laser irradiation on titanium implant surfaces are increasing.201 The aim of the 2008 study by Lee et al.202 was to investigate the responses of osteoblast-like cells seeded onto laser-irradiated, anodized titanium discs, using a CO2 or Er,Cr:YSGG laser, with reference to cellular proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Lasers Surg Med. Variation of optical penetration depth with incident radiant exposure. It is used for surgical procedures as well, acting as a cutting instrument. They should also be instructed on sun avoidance as much as possible. Background data: Alternatively, Er:YAG laser enhances the expression and presumably production of Mmp2. The operation of the Er: YAG laser at room temperature was discovered in 1975. Hibst R, Keller U. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). All factors producing tissue inflammation during the healing process, including mechanical trauma (excessive rubbing of the resurfaced skin), irritants, and chemicals causing an allergic contact dermatitis, and prolonged inflammation from an opportunistic infection, should be minimized or eliminated. Tak O, Sari T, Arslan Malkoç M, Altintas S, Usumez A, Gutknecht N. Lasers Surg Med. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser used for treating hard dental tissue in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). When compared with the CO2 laser, the erbium laser is gentler because the doctor can treat layers of skin far thinner than with the CO2 laser. 13.84, 13.85) to decrease intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients, but the procedure was stopped due to the very high risk of intraocular infection (Jelínková et al., 2000). Ex vivo animal cornea studies looking at the femtosecond laser and the use of alternative incisions such as ‘inverse mushroom’ and conical incisions have yielded interesting results. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. HISTORY 1960-first laser 1993 Nd:YAG Laser 1993 Kinetic Cavity Preparation 1994 CO2 Laser, Argon Laser 1996 Laser welder 1997 Nd:YAP Laser 1998 Er:YAG Laser 4. These should all be avoided during the first two postoperative months. Laser techniques are well suited for carrying out the steps of cut and paste keratoplasty. The active medium was highly doped – the erbium ion concentration was 50%. 2019 Summer;10(3):211-214. doi: 10.15171/jlms.2019.34. An Er:YAG laser was used on half the implants and mechanical debridement with plastic curettes and antiseptic therapy with chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%) on the other half. Consequently, Er:YAG laser energy transmission (wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 µseconds at 133 mJ/pulse) through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The SkyPulse Er:YAG laser is available from Fotona. 1.1), which makes it a good laser for cutting bone as well as soft tissue. Eliminating the vibration of the dental drill removes the risk of causing microfractures in the tooth. Harashima, et al., (2005) reported that cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser showed characteristic rough surface similar to an acid etched surface with open dentinal tubules and stripped surfaces. Epub 2015 Jul 6. Er:YAG laser is an optimal instrument to excise (TM) or smooth (TP) these lesions even if the time required for the intervention is more than the time needed by bony burs and high speed instruments. So, the Er:YAG laser is very useful in dentistry, dermatology, urology, and bone surgery. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads.  |  Unfortunately, hypopigmentation tends to be more persistent than hyperpigmentation.14,18,20 Treatment involves the use of chemical peels to help blend the lines of demarcation. 3.27. The criteria evaluated were plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. We recommend using an ointment that does not contain any stabilizing agents. Its compact design, friendly user interface and predefined presets, make it the preferred choice by both users and patients. Coagulation avoids any bleeding. The Er:YAG found its main application due to its generated wavelength and its optical absorption in water (> 3000 cm− 1). 2012 Jun;30(6):308-14. doi: 10.1089/pho.2011.3153. Scott Isenhath, ... Ken Lee, in Complications in Dermatologic Surgery, 2008. Erbium lasers can be used for hard tissue procedures like bone cutting and create minimal thermal and mechanical trauma to adjacent tissues. Because resonance absorption peaks of fluorides are usually located in wavelengths longer than those of oxides, the absorption edge in mid-infrared is located at wavelengths longer than 3 μm, and some of the fibers can transmit Er:YAG laser light (Itoh et al., 1994). The risk of hypopigmentation is greatest in fair-skinned individuals and appears to be directly related to the depth of penetration and degree of thermal injury imparted on the tissue. 2014 Oct;46(8):628-35. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22279. 5.13). 2015 Sep;30(7):1829-34. doi: 10.1007/s10103-014-1682-5. The criteria evaluated were plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level. Transient postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is one of the most common side effects of laser resurfacing, seen in 25–33% of patients, regardless of skin type. a) Conventional PFN Pumping Most Erbium lasers usea standard PFN (Pulse Forming Network) technology to generate high energy light pulses. An Er:YAG laser is used to make one pair of 4.5 mm incisions in each quadrant, starting 0.5 mm from the limbus with a separation of 2.5 mm and a depth of about 75% of the sclera. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ivar Krohn‐Dale. Attempts have been made to use Er:YAG laser sclerostomy, in which the channel is ablated through the sclera (see Fig. Rechmann P, Buu NC, Rechmann BM, Le CQ, Finzen FC, Featherstone JD. Fuchs' dystrophy). 13.85. SPIE; 1993. p. 60-7. Among them, the Er:YAG laser has the best safety profile.26 Pulsed dye laser has also been used for this purpose with good results.27,28. Other types of lasers have been used for treating warts at the nail apparatus with various results. Get the latest public health information from CDC:, Get the latest research information from NIH:, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: Er:YAG lasers with the wavelength 2.9 μm have been used for laser resurfacing of human skin, treating of acne scarring, deep rhytides, and melasma. Aim . Epub 2019 Jul 6. GeO2 glass fibers have advantages, in that they are fabricated by the same process as silica glass fibers (Takahashi and Sugimoto, 1984a) and are already on the market as an optical fiber for Er:YAG lasers with a wavelength of 2.94 μm. SPIE; 2000. p. 88-95. In addition, the 2.9 μm radiation of Er:YAG lasers is also absorbed by hydroxyapatite (see Fig. Fundamentals of lasers Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation 5. Conclusions: 2015 Sep;47(7):602-607. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22394. Scleral laser surgery is rare. 15. Its advantages of minimally invasive and painless make comfort therapy possible. 11 A diode laser is a solid-state laser with completely different chromophore targeting and absorption characteristics than the Er:YAG. Er:YAG lasers can be used in laser aided cataract surgery but owing to its water absorbable nature Nd:YAG is preferred more. Omar Ahmad, ... Alan Sugar, in Corneal Surgery (Fourth Edition), 2009. This laser, using an active medium of Nd: YAG [2]. Retrieval of Prefabricated Zirconia Crowns with Er,Cr:YSGG Laser from Primary and Permanent Molars. The erbium laser light works by vaporizing the outer layers of skin to cause skin contraction underneath, and some evidence has indicated it may even stimulate the production of the body’s own collagen. Dental sealants and the Er: YAG laser is a perfect combination. Avoid excessive rubbing of the tissue between laser passes. Activated MMPs are further involved in the activation of latent TGF-β1, followed by the differentiation of odontoblasts and the enhancement of odontoblastic gene expression by activated TGF-β1. During irradiation, water heats and evaporates resulting in a high pressure of steam that causes a micro-explosion of … Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by acid etching resulted in more homogenous surface pattern than the only lased surfaces. Treatment techniques are similar to those used in white-skinned individuals. Laser treatment for periungual warts is not a first-choice treatment.  |  (a) Optical penetration depth is defined as the location at which energy density drops to 1/e of the surface value, Woraphong Manuskiatti, Mitchel P. Goldman, in Cutaneous and Cosmetic Laser Surgery, 2006. From the second group of active media, Er:glass, generating the wavelength 1535 nm, has great importance. Er:YAG laser wavelength can vaporize both tissue and water content. We use fluocinolone ointment in petrolatum. These data show that irradiation with a CO2 laser or Er,Cr:YSGG laser may induce a measurable positive effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.203, The Er:YAG laser at 30 mJ/pulse and 30 Hz with water spray is capable of effectively removing plaque and calculus on the implant abutments without injuring their surfaces, indicating that the Er:YAG laser can be used for debridement of implant abutment surface.204 As for the influence of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on surface structure and biocompatibility of titanium implants, one essay concluded that even though this wavelength exhibited high efficiency in removing plaque biofilm in an energy-dependent manner, it failed to reestablish the biocompatibility of contaminated titanium surfaces.205, The use of Er:YAG laser therapy in the treatment of periimplantitis is promising. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! With the power of Er:YAG laser, SkyPulse can be used for disinfection, whitening, dental and surgical procedures. NIH Use of Er:YAG laser to decontaminate infected dental implant surface in preparation for reestablishment of bone-to-implant contact. J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, in Lasers for Medical Applications, 2013. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Good clinical healing process obtained with this wavelength could be related to the reduction of target tissue heating, the decontamination, the absence of smear layer production that could disrupt the healing process, plus the biostimulation of the irradiated tissues. There are two groups of very interesting wavelengths corresponding to these active materials: one in the region of 2.7–3 μm (Cr:Tm:Er:YAG, Er:Cr:YSGG, Er:YAG), and the second from 1.5 μm to 1.7 μm (Er:glass, Er:YAP, Er:YLF). Persistent hypopigmentation is an uncommon complication of ablative resurfacing that presents 6–12 months after the procedure. One should remember that, when working on the PNF, there is always some thermal spread into the underlying matrix.  |  It should be kept in mind that warts have a limited life and will disappear spontaneously in many instances. nm must be used for obtaining the population inversion. Methods: Er:YAG laser in the treatment of periodontal sites with recurring chronic inflammation: a 12‐month randomized, controlled clinical trial . Nevins M, Nevins ML, Yamamoto A, Yoshino T, Ono Y, Wang CW, Kim DM. Pre- and postoperative treatment regimens are necessary to achieve optimum results and to reduce the incidence of PIH. We report two cases of EB in which an Er:YAG laser was used for conservative treatments. Erbium YAG dental lasers are effective for removing tooth decay atraumatically, often without the need for local anesthetic to numb the tooth. Laser in dentistry have many uses it can be used in Soft as well as Hard tissue. Treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation includes sun avoidance and an appropriate sunscreen to prevent further exacerbation of the hyperpigmentation. The energy delivered by Er:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2.94 μm has one of the highest absorption in water, and a high affinity for hydroxyapatites. Er:YAG laser-assisted debonding causes a minor increase in the pulp temperature and reduced the risk of enamel damage compared with conventional bracket removal. But it is sometimes very hard to resist the insistence of some patients in this era of lasers. Methods . Plus it provides a great marginal closure for the sealing dental material. Er:YAG laser sclerostomy (SEM record). Its use has many benefits including a reduced need for local anesthesia, minimal negative effects or trauma to the surrounding tissues, and excellent rates of healing and recovery following its use. They do have different wavelengths, Er:YAG has 2940 nm and Er,Cr:YSGG has 2780 nm. Comparison of the effects of surface treatments on roughness of two ceramic systems. Implant surface debridement and granulation tissue removal were obtained effectively and safely with the erbium laser (95- to 105-mJ/pulse, with irrigation at a 30- to 45-degree angle) compared with plastic curettes. Authors Kinga … NLM Use of topical corticosteroid ointment from days 3–10 at night will help to decrease inflammation. Alikhasi M, Monzavi A, Ebrahimi H, Pirmoradian M, Shamshiri A, Ghazanfari R. J Lasers Med Sci. Debonding Time and Dental Pulp Temperature With the Er, Cr: YSGG Laser for Debonding Feldespathic and Lithium Disilicate Veneers. Therefore higher pumping is needed to run the laser. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser used for treating hard dental tissue in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Erbium lasers are built with two different crystals, the Er:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet crystal) and Er,Cr:YSGG ( chromium sensitized yttrium scandium gallium garnet crystal). Among them, the, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, Efficient resonantly pumped eye-safe erbium laser (erbium doping < 0.5 at.%) (, Lasing at the water absorption maximum (erbium doping > 30 at.%), High water absorption, special fibers for delivery are available (, Large absorption in water, higher repetition rate than Er:YAG (, Material with large gain, possible diode pumping (Sulc, Dentistry, bone surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation following, ) and are already on the market as an optical fiber for, Erica Krohn Jany Migliorati DDS, Daniel Simões de Almeida Rosa DDS, in, Solid-state lasers for medical applications. Warts will often regress with various keratolytic solutions or with bleomycin puncture. Belikov AV, Erofeev AV, Shumilin VV, Tkachuk AM. 16. Patients should regularly use sunscreens with a minimum SPF 30 for one month prior to the procedure. Coagulation avoids any bleeding. Caution must be taken when working on the PNF as the risk of dystrophy is very high. The nail dystrophies resulting from scarring are definitive and not treatable. Stock K, Hibst R, Keller U. Er:YAG lasers are also safer than carbon dioxide lasers for the removal of warts, because human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is not found in the laser plume. It is pumped by flashlamp, and is also used in dermatology for removal of wrinkles, acne, scars, and pigmented lesions, agespots, sun-spots and freckles, complexion improvement and reducing stretch marks (parameters: 80 mJ, 5 or 10 ms length of pulse, 1 Hz). Animal models have shown the feasibility of using the femtosecond laser to create conical corneal incisions that range from 0 to 60° from the sagittal axis, as well as the addition of positional orientation spikes.19 Taking this one step further, a femtosecond laser was used to create ‘top hat’ configurations out of both polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and porcine corneas.18 A laboratory model showed that the ‘top hat’ configuration created by the femtosecond laser was slightly more mechanically stable than that of traditional penetrating keratoplasty.37, A. Douplik, ... V.V. Other types of lasers have been used for treating warts at the nail apparatus with various results. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Laser all-ceramic crown removal-a laboratory proof-of-principle study-phase 1 material characteristics. Zirconium-fluoride-based ZBLAN fibers (Kanamori and Sakaguchi, 1986) and aluminum fluoride glass fibers are representative examples of fluoride glass fibers.

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